popoynyn a făcut o actualizare Acum 5 luni, 2 săptămâni
In the industrial set up of the economy, the printing machines are growing in large numbers. Different printing techniques and processes are used by every industry for effective communication. Any machine used in printing ink on the substrate (printing medium) which can be cloth, paper or plastic, is referred to as the printing machinery. By applying pressure to the substrate, the printing machinery transfers the ink on the printing medium resting on an inked platform composed of movable type. The development of industrial printing machines changed a lot of things in the world. It would make transfer and preservation of historical records, scientific findings, and knowledge easy and possible. There’s a great advancement in the printing machinery introduced in the market today given the improvement in science and technology. There’s a competition in the industry, as many companies are now making printing press. As every company is introducing better features and making an effort to overcome the other competitors, this has led to the introduction of many enhanced features in printing machinery. With the introduction of various features in these types of machinery, printing is now easier to be done than it was in earlier days.
Today, printing machinery is available in many sizes to suit different needs. Bigger sizes of printing machinery are available for heavy-duty printing or big-time printing businesses. You can get small and medium sizes too for small and medium printing businesses. The machinery size determines the volume of printing that will be done in a day, to a greater extent. When compared with small-sized printing machinery, the heavy industrial printing machines can print a lot of things per hour or regularly. There are different types of printing machines for printing on a different medium since different printing machines make use of different printing technology. Each of the below-mentioned printing machinery is meant to serve a particular purpose. You must consider your printing needs or the type of printing that you are doing before you want to buy or order for your printing machine. Several factors such as the size, the type of printing done, the seller, the brand, and others determine the cost.
Types Of Printing Machines
Flexographic Printing Machine
Letterpress Printing Machines
Electrostatic Printing Machine
Rotogravure Printing Machines
Here’s What Experts Think About Stretching Machines
On the surface, stretching machines seem like a good idea—if they’re designed to help improve flexibility, and flexibility is an important part of fitness, then certainly they’re worth using, right?
Plus, machines are often included with strength training and cardiovascular workouts, so by the same logic, stretching machines could supplement or enhance a flexibility workout, too.
Granted, the logic isn’t wrong, but it’s not necessarily right, either. Certainly, when used correctly, stretching machines can help enhance flexibility.
But what you need to ask yourself is whether improved flexibility is really the best goal, and even if it is, are these machines worth the cost? Generally, the answer is no. Here’s what experts want you to know about stretching machines.
“People often confuse flexibility and mobility,” says Alex Tauberg, DC, CSCS, the owner of Tauberg Chiropractic and Rehabilitation in Pittsburgh.
“Flexibility is the ability to elongate a muscle. Mobility is the ability to move a joint through its range of motion.”
In general, it’s better to focus on improving active mobility rather than flexibility, according to Tauberg.
“This ends up improving your flexibility as well, but has the benefit of being tied in more closely with everyday activities,” he says.
To give you a clear picture of the difference, mobility has to do with moving well throughout the day to perform the activities you need and want to perform.
Flexibility has to do with how far a particular muscle can move at a particular joint. You can have poor flexibility or excessive flexibility, and flexibility can be affected by genetics and training.
(Add this daily yoga routine to your morning.)
While flexibility can play a role in mobility, it’s possible for a person to be perfectly mobile for their given needs without being overly flexible.
For instance, a person may be able to walk around, squat down, and chase after a toddler without being able to do splits or bend over and touch the floor. Their mobility allows them to live a perfectly satisfying life without having a need for greater flexibility.
And while you can certainly use a stretching machine to increase flexibility, this type of stretching may not have a direct correlation with improved mobility.
As such, unless a professional has indicated that you need to work on muscle-specific flexibility with static stretching, you’re likely better off pursuing other types of mobility training. And even if you do need to work on flexibility, using a stretching machine may not be the best option.
What’s the difference between an inkjet printer and a laser printer?
An inkjet printer uses ink to print documents, while a laser printer uses a laser to print documents. Pretty simple, right?The different printing processes affect each printer’s speed, functions, and image quality. Let’s go into a bit more detail.
How does an inkjet printer work?
An inkjet printer uses ink cartridges.Here’s how it gets the ink onto paper:1. The printer processes an image or document from a device.2. Small nozzles (jets) are positioned throughout the printer to spray ink droplets onto a sheet of paper as it passes by. Hundreds of nozzles release thousands of ink droplets.
3. To release an ink droplet, the nozzle is heated by electricity. The heat causes the ink to expand in a bubble, and it expands through the nozzle until it squirts onto the paper.4. When the ink bubble collapses, a vacuum is created that draws more ink into the nozzle from the ink cartridge, ready to release the next droplet.5. It takes many droplets to form a single character.The nozzles are attached to a printhead, which can move left and right across the paper to create new characters.
How does a laser printer work?
Although it’s called a laser printer, static electricity is the main phenomenon that occurs to get those images and text on the page. Remember, when it comes to static electricity, opposites attract; only positive charges and negative charges stick to each other.Negative can’t attach to negative and positive can’t attach to positive (try playing with the ends of two magnets if you don’t believe it).A laser printer cleverly manipulates static electricity to attach toner to a sheet of paper. Laser toner is a powdered ink that’s more grain-like than regular ink.
Using a flash dryer for flashing.
Typically a flash dryer is placed 2-3 inches above the screen printing platen height. Depending on the wattage and type of the flash dryer the flash is positioned over the platen for anywhere from 3-15 seconds. Typically the ink needs to reach about 240-250 degrees Fahrenheit which is its gel point. The ink should not come up on your fingers if you touch it but still feel tacky. Screen printers should avoid flashing the ink for too long because if the ink has a chance to fully cure, the next layer of ink will not bond into the underbase which has already been fully cured, this is known as intercoat adhesion.Both plastisol and green galaxy water based ink need to reach 320 degrees through the entire layer of ink to fully cure or set. While a flash dryer can accomplish this, it is not optimal for production or consistency. A flash dryer allows air to circulate under it which can change the curing parameters in a moment, it also sometimes is not large enough to cure the entire design which can cause the edges to wash out. To use a flash dryer to properly cure ink it is imperative to separate the shirt from the platen. Unlike flashing where the shirt stays stuck to the platen to maintain registration, the when fully curing a shirt with a flash it is important to remove the shirt from the platen surface. This allows the heat to penetrate the entire layer of ink and fully cure the ink. If using a temp gun to temp the surface of the ink it should reach 330-340 degrees F. Stretch testing and wash testing ink is always recommended. If you are using a flash to achieve final cure ensure that the air around the flash is stagnant so that air movement does not change the temperature and flash elements effectiveness.
How Pneumatic Presses Are Used in Manufacturing
A pneumatic press is a type of forming press that uses a pneumatic system to manipulate a workpiece via the aforementioned manufacturing processes. They typically feature a rectangular frame. After placing the workpiece in the middle of the frame, the top of the pneumatic press drops down to manipulate it.
Pneumatic presses work by applying pressure to workpiece. When a workpiece is placed in the middle of a pneumatic press, it will be exposed to pressure. The top of the pneumatic press will push down onto the workpiece. Due to the pressure behind it, the pneumatic press will then manipulate the workpiece.
Some forming presses use a hydraulics system to manipulate workpieces. Known as hydraulic presses, they are capable of performing many of the same manufacturing processes as their pneumatic counterparts. Hydraulic and pneumatic presses aren’t the same, however.
Hydraulic presses are powered by a pressurized liquid. They feature a piston that moves down into a liquid-filled storage tank. As the piston presses into the liquid-filled storage tank, it creates pressure on the top plate, thus pushing the top plate into the workpiece. The liquid can’t expand inside the sealed storage tank, so it creates pressure in response to the piston.
Pneumatic presses, on the other hand, are powered by pressurized gas or air. They feature a cylinder that’s filled with pressurized gas or air. Like hydraulic presses, pneumatic presses leverage compressive forces to manipulate workpieces. The difference is that hydraulic presses use pressurized liquid, whereas pneumatic presses use pressurized gas or air. When compared to hydraulic presses, pneumatic presses are faster and easier to maintain.